APA Guide for Business Students: In-Text Citations

Unknown Author

Rules

  1. Without an author, cite the first few words of the title.
  2. If the author is designated as "Anonymous", the author becomes "Anonymous" in the in-text citation.

Examples

  • The Asian tigers saw economic growth rates of the greater than 7 percent  ("Asian exceptionalism," 2008).
  • Analysts predict that current debt crisis will continue the plague other European countries over the next year (Anonymous, 2010).

Single Author

Rules

  1. (Author's last name, Year of Publication)
  2. (Corporate Author. Year of Publication)
  3. (Year of Publication)
  4. If closely paraphrasing or quoting, add page info. after the year in parentheses.

Examples

  • GDP rates were expected to increase over the next three years (Smith, 2012).
  • Smith (2012) reported that GDP rates were expected to rise.
  • On average, the number of new small business ventures declined (Statistics Canada, 2010)

Two Authors

Rules 

  1. Use "&" to separate authors names in parentheses
  2. Write out "and" to separate two authors names if written outside of parentheses

Examples

  • The study indicated that profit margins would reach a record high (Smith & Jones, 2005).
  • Smith and Jones (2005) concluded that profit margins would reach a record high [...]

Three to Five Authors

Rules

  1. After the first citation use "et al." (meaning; and others) to shorten referring to the same work.

Examples

  • The company achieved growth in quarter four (Smith, James, & Jones, 2005).
  • The company also expects an increase in profit over the next three years (Smith et al., 2005).

Six or More Authors

Rule

Cite only the first author and use "et al." (meaning; and others) for all in text citations.

Examples

  • The report (Kunz et al., 2010) indicates mortgage rates are likely to remain the same next year.
  • Kunz et al. (2010) forcasted [...]

Definition

In-text citations are used in the body of your text to briefly identify your sources.

Citing from Cited Sources

Rules

When citing material that is cited in another source, add "as cited in" to reference the source you found the information in.

Only include sources in your reference list that you have found and read. In the example below, you would add "Van Putten and Green, 2011" to your reference list, but would not include "Sisodia, Wolfe and Sheth, 2007" if you have not actually found the source yourself and read it. 

Example

Sisodia, Wolfe and Sheth (2007) believe that a company's behaviour towards its stakeholders can be an important competition (as cited in Van Putten & Green, 2011).

Note: The bold-face is added to this example for clarification and is not used in the actual in-text citation. 

Multiple Sources in Parentheses

Rules

  1. Arange works alphabetically by author.
  2. separate works by semi-colon.

Example

Mortgage rates are expected to increase by more than five percent in 2014 (Doe, 2012; Smith & Jones, 2012).