APA Guide for Business Students: Personal Communication

What is a Personal Communication?

Rules

  1. A personal communication includes: lectures, interviews, email, letters and conversations, etc.
  2. If  the communication is not retrievable, cite in-text only.
  3. If the communication is retrievable (eg. your professor could read a published transcript), include a citation in the reference list so that the reader has the item description and retrieval details.

*See APA Manual 6th ed. p. 179 (6.20) for further information and example.

Example

  • Personal Conversation

In-Text citation only → (B. Klassen, personal communication, October 15, 2013)

  • Interviews - Not Retrievable 

In-Text citation only →  (R. Styles, personal communication, September 15, 2013)

  • Speech or Lecture - Not Retrievable

In-Text citation only → (A. Renny, personal communicattion, September 7, 2015)

  • Speech or Lecture - Retrievable

Renny, A. (2012). Week 2 Lecture: Major themes facing business
      today [Lecture recording
]. Retrieved from the University of
      Saskatchewan website http://usask.ca/
business101

Business Research Guide