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Citation Style Guides: DOI

What is a DOI?

A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned to a specific electronic resource which provides a persistent link to its location.

ex: doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.27.3.379

When available, include the DOI in your journal article references. 

See pages 187-192 & 198-199 of the APA Publication Manual for more information


As indicated in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (pg 198):

"If no DOI is assigned to the content and you retrieved it online, include the home page URL for the journal, newsletter, or magazine in the reference.  Use this format: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx"

Where Can I Find the DOI?

Databases:  Most databases include a DOI (if available) in the full record.  For example, in PsycINFO, choose the Complete Reference link to see if a DOI is listed.  See an example here.

E-Journals: You can often retrieve the article's DOI from the publisher's website for your particular article.  See an example here.

Print Journals: Look on the first page of the journal to see if a DOI is listed (top corner, bottom of the page, etc.).  See an example here.