Without an author, cite the first few words of the title.
If the author is designated as "Anonymous", the author becomes "Anonymous" in the in-text citation.
The Asian tigers saw economic growth rates of the greater than 7 percent ("Asian exceptionalism," 2008).
Analysts predict that current debt crisis will continue the plague other European countries over the next year (Anonymous, 2010).
(Author's last name, Year of Publication)
(Corporate Author. Year of Publication)
(Year of Publication)
If closely paraphrasing or quoting, add page info. after the year in parentheses.
GDP rates were expected to increase over the next three years (Smith, 2012).
Smith (2012) reported that GDP rates were expected to rise.
On average, the number of new small business ventures declined (Statistics Canada, 2010)
Use "&" to separate authors names in parentheses
Write out "and" to separate two authors names if written outside of parentheses
The study indicated that profit margins would reach a record high (Smith & Jones, 2005).
Smith and Jones (2005) concluded that profit margins would reach a record high [...]
Three to Five Authors
After the first citation use "et al." (meaning; and others) to shorten referring to the same work.
The company achieved growth in quarter four (Smith, James, & Jones, 2005).
The company also expects an increase in profit over the next three years (Smith et al., 2005).
Six or More Authors
Cite only the first author and use "et al." (meaning; and others) for all in text citations.
The report (Kunz et al., 2010) indicates mortgage rates are likely to remain the same next year.
Kunz et al. (2010) forcasted [...]
In-text citationsare used in the body of your text to briefly identify your sources.
Citing from Cited Sources
When citing material that is cited in another source, add "as cited in" to reference the source you found the information in.
Only include sources in your reference list that you have found and read. In the example below, you would add "Van Putten and Green, 2011" to your reference list, but would not include "Sisodia, Wolfe and Sheth, 2007" if you have not actually found the source yourself and read it.
Sisodia, Wolfe and Sheth (2007) believe that a company's behaviour towards its stakeholders can be an important competition (as cited in Van Putten & Green, 2011).
Note: The bold-face is added to this example for clarification and is not used in the actual in-text citation.
Multiple Sources in Parentheses
Arange works alphabetically by author.
separate works by semi-colon.
Mortgage rates are expected to increase by more than five percent in 2014 (Doe, 2012; Smith & Jones, 2012).