APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences, such as Psychology, Linguistics, Sociology, Economics, and Criminology, as well as Business and Nursing. Always check with your professor/instructor to make sure you are using the correct citation style.
The University Library has two comprehensive Research Guides dedicated to APA style which you can access here:
Below are links for more information on to on how to use APA Style from other sources.
NorQuest Library has noted that the formal APA style does not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers so they have developed this citation style in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation.
Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation format should follow the same guidelines as noted in the paraphrase and direct quote tabs:
Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2004).
The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2004).
The citation format for the reference list is as follows:
Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year
Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.
Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.
Thank you to Lorisia MacLeod, a librarian at NorQuest College in Edmonton, for developing this template and allowing us to share it.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. NorQuest details and exceptions.
This manual is the definitive source for questions regarding APA citation style. The library owns many copies. Those in Reference are for in-library use only.