APA Style is the documentation and citation format of the American Psychological Association (APA). The 7th edition of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2019) is the definitive source for APA style.
APA Style is most commonly used within the social sciences, such as Psychology, Linguistics, Sociology, Economics, and Criminology, as well as Business, Education, Kinesiology, and Nursing.
APA uses an author-date citation system with in-text citations and a reference list.
The University Library has several Research Guides dedicated to APA style which you can access here. Please note there are both 7th edition and 6th edition guides available. If you're using a guide that's based on the 6th edition of the manual, please consider comparing it to the 7th edition to ensure you're using the correct formatting. Always check with your professor/instructor to make sure you are using the correct citation style.
Below are links for more information on APA Style.
Note: A new version (7th edition) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was published in October 2019. If you're using a guide that's based on the 6th edition of the manual, please consider comparing it to the 7th edition to ensure you're using the correct formatting. Always check with your professor/instructor to make sure you are using the correct citation style.
NorQuest Library has noted that the formal APA style does not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers so they have developed this citation style in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation.
Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation format should follow the same guidelines as noted in the paraphrase and direct quote tabs:
Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2004).
The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2004).
The citation format for the reference list is as follows:
Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year
Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.
Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.
Thank you to Lorisia MacLeod, a librarian at NorQuest College in Edmonton, for developing this template and allowing us to share it.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. NorQuest details and exceptions.
This manual is the definitive source for questions regarding APA citation style. The library owns many copies. Those in Reference are for in-library use only.