The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) is the official source for citing in APA style. APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences, such as Psychology, Linguistics, Sociology, Economics, and Criminology, as well as in Business, Education, Kinesiology, and Nursing.
The University Library owns several print copies of the Publication Manual. Those listed as "Reference" in the library catalogue are for in-library use only. While the APA does not provide an institutional e-access model for their manual, individuals are able to purchase an electronic version via Amazon (Kindle), RedShelf, and Vital Source.
Many of the links in this guide lead to the APA Style website. This is an official website of the American Psychological Association. Along with the print Publication Manual, it is the authoritative source for information about APA style and grammar guidelines.
View recorded workshops on citation styles, such as an introduction to APA 7th edition.
APA Style uses an Author-Date citation system. In-text citations are covered in Chapter 8 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed). The links below provide some additional information on in-text citation, taken from the official APA Style website.
In-text citations consist of the author's last name and publication year. Page numbers are required when quoting and encouraged when paraphrasing.
In-text citations are brief notations within the body of your paper which direct the reader to the corresponding complete citation information at the end of the paper in the References section.
Section 8.6 of the Publication Manual provides directions for citing sources that appear in another source (e.g. a book that has been cited in an article). As a general rule, APA recommends that secondary sources be avoided unless the original source is unavailable.
Section 8.13 of the Publication Manual indicates that when citing a specific part of a work (such as a table or figure), provide an author-date citation for the work plus information about the specific part. Then put an entry to the entire work in the reference list.
Number of Authors to Include in In-Text Citations
For a work with one or two authors, include all names in the in-text citation. For a work with three or more authors, include only the name of the first author with "et al." in the citation, unless this would create ambiguity. Section 8.17 of the Publication Manual explains in more detail.
An APA Style Blog post on how to cite ChatGPT and other AI tools.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) is the official source for citing in APA style.
The reference list at the end of the paper, labeled References, provides the information necessary for readers to identify and retrieve each work cited in the text. To create a reference list entry, first determine the reference group (e.g. textual works, data sets,) and category and then choose the appropriate reference type within the category (e.g. journal article) and follow that example.
The following links lead to examples of references (with corresponding in-text citations) from the official APA Style website. For reference examples not listed on these pages, refer to the Publication Manual or to the APA Style website.
This page includes: letter from a repository; letter from a private collection; collection of letters from an archive; unpublished papers, lectures from an archive or personal collection; archival/historical source for which the author and/or date is known or is reasonably certain but not stated on the document; archival source with group author; interview recorded and available in an archive; transcription of a recorded interview, no recording available; newspaper article clipping, historical, in personal collection; historical publication of limited circulation; archived photographs, no author and no title; and microfilm.
Other Reference Examples
Legal reference examples are not listed on the APA Style website. However, Chapter 11 of the Publication Manual is dedicated to Legal References. It includes examples of case or court decisions (11.4), statutes (laws and acts) (11.5), legislative materials (11.6), administrative and executive materials (11.7), patents (11.8), constitutions and charters (11.9), and treaties and international conventions (11.10).